Someone may choose to quit a good job because their spouse got a promotion in a new city. A couple may decide one of them should stay home to raise the children. Someone else may forego pursuing a degree to support their spouse as they earn theirs. These are all choices that make sense as long as the couple stays together.
Then comes the divorce. And suddenly, one spouse is faced with a reality they had not prepared for—providing for themselves on their own. It can be challenging to transition back to the workforce and in some cases, it may not even be possible. That’s where spousal maintenance may come in. On the other side, being forced to pay spousal maintenance can feel unfair. Not only are they getting divorced, but now they must pay their spouse, even though their spouse is already getting a lot of the benefits and financial assets based on the overall division of property.
Arizona has tried to balance these two positions through creating a spousal maintenance system that allows dependent spouses to transition to their independence.
The law permits spousal maintenance (or alimony as it’s called in other states) for several reasons—to help maintain the lifestyle the parties enjoyed during the marriage, to account for the role a spouse’s took during the marriage (i.e., helping their spouse fulfill career ambitions by staying home to save on childcare costs), but the reason that is most likely to be reflected in a spousal maintenance order is to transition the receiving spouse to becoming self-sufficient.
Arizona law attempts to balance these interests. The state legislature has built numerous considerations into the spousal maintenance laws, and as of July 2023, there are finally Spousal Maintenance Guidelines and a calculation used for spousal maintenance awards outlined in ARS 25-319 Maintenance.
Before the court adopted the Self-Sufficiency Calculator, spousal maintenance was one of the most-litigated issue in a divorce. Even with the new guidelines, Spousal maintenance is not automatic, and it is an extremely complex issue. The calculation has taken a once gray area and attempted to solidify the standards. If you think your divorce is one in which spousal maintenance may be an issue, we urge you to consult with an attorney to understand the new rules.
Just because there is a new calculator available does not mean the lower or non-earning spouse is automatically eligible or entitled to spousal maintenance. In fact, the eligibility for spousal maintenance has not changed. A party requesting spousal maintenance must still meet at least one of the factors under A.R.S. § 25-319(A). See Ariz. Sp. M. Guidelines § 1(D) (affirming that A.R.S. § 25-319(A) controls eligibility). See id. (If a court determines that the requesting spouse is not eligible for spousal maintenance, there is no requirement to use the Spousal Maintenance Calculator). The calculator is not meant to be used to prove an award is warranted. Entitlement to a spousal maintenance award means that if a spouse is eligible and the calculator provides a figure and duration, the requesting spouse is entitled to the payments.
Once eligibility is determined, the new Guidelines require Courts to use the Spousal Maintenance Calculator and go through the below factors and steps to determine how much should be owed.
For spousal maintenance to be an issue, one of the spouses needs to request it in either the Petition or the Response to the Petition. If neither party requests it in one of those documents, it cannot be ordered.
The Affidavit of Financial Information (AFI) is a document that both parties need to fill out when spousal maintenance is at issue. It becomes a critical document in a spousal maintenance case where the focus is often on what the receiving spouse needs to meet their reasonable needs and whether the paying spouse can afford to pay spousal maintenance and meet their reasonable needs.
The other components of spousal maintenance include what the potential receiving spouse will be receiving in property from the divorce, what their earning capacity is in the market, whether they’ve reduced their opportunities for the benefit of the other spouse. On the other side, the Court will be interested in whether the potential paying spouse can afford to pay spousal maintenance. Discovery and disclosure help the parties get the information they need to make a risk assessment and determine whether they want to settle or go to trial.
In situations where a spouse has not worked for a while or has just started working, there is often a debate over what that spouse’s earning potential might be. A vocational evaluation is a meeting with an expert who is trained in determining what someone’s earning capacity is in the market. It is commonly ordered in these situations.
It is often advisable to try mediation once all the relevant information has been exchanged. The purpose of mediation is to see if the parties can reach an agreement that works for both people. Additionally, the parties can agree to make spousal maintenance non-modifiable; the Court on its own cannot order that.
If the parties cannot reach an agreement on spousal maintenance, the court must decide. The court can only decide after a trial.
The law regarding spousal maintenance is A.R.S. § 25-319. It has two parts for determining maintenance. Under A.R.S. § 25-319(A), a spouse must meet one of the five listed criteria to qualify for spousal maintenance. Once they do, we move to the calculation. It used to be that we moved onto A.R.S. § 25-319(B) to determine the amount, but under the new Guidelines and updated law, the 25-319(B) factors while still considered are applied during the calculation and determination phases of spousal maintenance.
You might. Certainly, you will have an argument that your spouse has enough property to be self-sufficient such that spousal maintenance should not be ordered or should be reduced. But the Court will also look at whether spousal maintenance is necessary to help the receiving spouse maintain the lifestyle established during the marriage.
No. Spousal maintenance is not necessary when the parties earn the same amount. A spousal maintenance award should not make it so the paying spouse has less income than the recipient spouse.
No. Since you are both getting an equal share of all the retirement assets, each of you will have the same income, so there is no need for spousal maintenance.
No. Spousal maintenance is not intended to equalize incomes. The purpose of spousal maintenance is to help the receiving spouse meet their reasonable needs and to help them transition to independence.
No. There is no minimum length of marriage requirement in the law. Obviously, though, the shorter the marriage, the less likely spousal maintenance is to be ordered. You should be aware that certain other benefits that you may be entitled may require a minimum length of marriage. This is particularly true if you want to draw on your spouse’s Social Security (a 10-year marriage). If your spouse is in the military and will qualify for military retirement pay not related to a disability, there may be benefits available to you depending on the length of the marriage.
Infidelity is not something the Court considers when awarding spousal maintenance.
No. Adultery does not enter into the spousal maintenance calculation on either side of the ledger.
Spousal maintenance is not that simple. Much more information must be considered to determine whether spousal maintenance is going to be ordered. This is where a consult with an attorney is helpful.
Yes, that is the kind of transition for which spousal maintenance was intended. But be aware that does not necessarily mean you qualify for spousal maintenance or be awarded it.
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